Beginners: grammar syllabus, translation exercises.
Advanced students shall read and translate more complex texts.
Literature: the Veda, upani?at, pur??a, the epics. k?vya, especially drama. Beginners shall read one of the suggested history texts, from prehistory to the 11th century.
Language. Two texts, C. Della Casa, Corso di Sanscrito, Unicopli, Milano 2002; A. Acklujkar, Corso di Sanscrito, Hoepli, Milano 2012.
Literature. Specific chapters from either of these two texts: G. Boccali, S. Piano, S. Sani, Le letterature dell'India, UTET, Torino 2000; V. Pisani, L. P. Mishra, Le letterature dell'India, Sansoni/Accademia, Milano 1970.
History: either Romila Thapar, History of Early India, Penguin, London 2012; or H. Kulke e D. Rothermund, Storia dell'India, Garzanti 1991.
Knowledge: The course offers a deeper knowledge of Sanskrit grammar, from morphology to the verbal system, to the formation of complex nominal compounds.
A more articulate and specific knowledge of Sanskrit literature shall allow students to appreciate the extraordinary contribution of India to world culture.
Competences: Language: students shall be able to engage with different aspects of a complex morphological and verbal system, they shall be able to interpret and form compounds of four different types, and gain a larger Sanskrit vocabulary.
They shall also learn to use the principal bibliographical and informatics instruments to study this discipline.
Literature: Students shall get a more informed notion of the gigantic Sanskrit literature and of its diverse literary genres also through reading actual texts (beginners shall read them in translation) introduced in lectures.
- stimulus to a responsible use of the University structures, of the CdS, of the instruments that orient and organize students' careers
- stimulus to behaviours of intellectual participation, and to a correct and useful teacher-student relationship
- stimulus to a civil and shared use of the study resources of the CdS and of the Scuola.
Excellent knowledge of the Italian language (except in the case the course is taught in English; then an excellent knowledge of English is required), aptitude for the study of foreign languages
Altre info: Mandatory attendance is required for at least the 2/3 of the course. No special examinations are intended for non-attending students, except for students with a part-time enrollment. These must contact the teaching staff at the beginning of the course in order to get a specific program.
Type of Assessment
There are some informal written texts during the course, and final oral examinations also for non-attending students, or Erasmus students. The final examination shall consist of a few questions on grammar, an example of translation from a Sanskrit text analyzed in the course, and a couple of questions on Sanskrit literature.
The examination aims to verify:
1) The students' knowledge of the basic principles of Sanskrit grammar and its terminology, such as the student's ability to recognize morphological features of the proposed Sanskrit sentences, and to translate them into Italian (or English in the case the course was taught in English).
2) The students' knowledge of the literary Sanskrit works studied, and their capacity to describe them.
It is necessary to show a sufficient level of knowledge in both grammar and literature in order to pass the examination
The final evaluation consists in the ensemble of the marks obtained in both parts.
Language: devan?gar? alphabet – numbers – sandhi – syllabic stress – concordance and order of words – translation strategies – apophony – nominal and pronominal declension -verbal classes, modes and tenses – active, middle, passive diathesis – verbal and nominal prefixes – peculiarities of the different types of participles - passive past participle and stative – causative – desiderative – denominative – precative – frequentative – absolutive constructions – dvandva - tatpuru?a - karmadh?raya - bahuvrihi compounds – adverbs and indeclinables –– terms of comparison.
Literature: ?gveda, Yajurveda, Samaveda, Atharvaveda, Br?hma?a, ?r??yaka, Upani?at, Pur??a, R?m?ya?a, Mah?bh?rata. K?vya: A?vagho?a, K?lid?sa, ??draka, B??a, Bh?sa, Bh?vabh?ti, Damodaragupta, Vi??khadatta.