- Norgia, Pesatori, Svelto: Esercizi di misure, Esculapio editore, Bologna.
The following book is also useful for statistics and probability:
- Navidi, Probabilità e statistica per l'ingegneria e le scienze, McGrawHill editore
Finally, also the following books are interesting:
- Offelli, Petri: Lezioni di strumentazione elettronica, CittàStudiEdizioni.
- Pisani: Misure elettroniche, strumentazione elettronica di misura, Politeko editore.
- Doeblin: Strumeti e metodi di misura, McGrawHill editore.
- M. Garetto: Statistica, Lezioni ed Esercizi, Quaderni Didattici del Dipartimento di Matematica, quaderno #13 - Novembre 2002
http://www.metrodata.de (GUM Workbench)
Involve the basic concepts of metrology, measurement uncertainty evaluation and teaching sensors, instruments and methods for low frequency measurements
Basic statistical and probability concepts
Lectures, laboratory exercises and workshops
Type of Assessment
Written test, knowledge of Labview software, oral test.
1- Basic Metrology Language. Introduction. Website. Why is it so important to measure? Commercial and legal reasons, both technical and scientific reasons; fundamental terms and definitions in metrology, metrology on the WEB. The experimental cognitive process, different types of measurements.
2- The Metrology Language. Measurement result as a range of values; the measurement as a random variable. Measure and probability; expected value and variance of a measurement result. MINITAB software for statistical analysis. Some continuous distributions: uniform and normal distributions. The contribution of Taylor and Tchebycheff. Confidence intervals in a measurement result.
3- Descriptive and inferential statistics. Frequency distributions and graphs, Position and variability indexes, Correlation between variables. Sample theory. t- distribution and chi-square distribution, F-distribution. Parameter Estimation: Average and confidence intervals, Proportion confidence intervals, Variability confidence intervals and two variance ratios. Hypothesis test: Average hypothesis test, Proportion hypothesis test, Variance hypothesis test and two variance relationship. Chi-square test: Goodness-of-fit Test, Test of Independence.
4- Evaluation of the uncertainties in the measurement procedure (GUM and ISO / TAG 4 / WG 3 standard). Error and uncertainty. Definitions and sources of uncertainty. The probabilistic model. Classification: type A and type B standard uncertainty. Combined Standard Uncertainty in indirect measurements. Simultaneous measurement of multiple inputs. Coverage factor. Extended uncertainty. Presentation of a measurement result. The compatibility of different measurements. Measurement methods: direct reading and repeated readings; opposition, replacement and memory of the calibration function. Indirect measurements: sum, product, quotient and measure power. Practical example of uncertainties evaluation in the measure of a resistor with ohmmeter, volt-amperometric and Wheatstone bridge method . Introduction to Supplement 1 to GUM. GUM-Workbench software for uncertainty assessment.
5- Characterization of a measuring instrument. (calibration function, hysteresis, resolution, accuracy, repeatability, stability, usage requirements, frequency response and transient response). The International System of SI Units. Basic and Supplementary Units and Related Units (UNI 10003 - D.M. 591). Principal derivative quantities and relative units. Units of common use not belonging to the International System. Multiples and Submultiplexes. Writing rules. The International Organization of Metrology (ISO, IEC, CEN, CENELEC) National Calibration System (UNI, CEI).
6- Continuous and Alternate Electrical Measurement Theory.: Definitions and operating principles of measuring instruments for electrical quantities. Decibel. Loading effect. Non-electrical Measuring Instruments: Sensors and transducers, Instrument classification, Fundamental parameters and constructive features, Main physical effects involved. Measurement and control instruments for electrical quantities: classification.
7- Continuous and Alternate Electrical Measurement Instruments: Electromechanical and electronic analog indicators. Electronic counters. Analog to digital converters. Numeric Multimeters. Digital oscilloscopes. The LABView software: PC module interface for custom applications of virtual measuring instruments