Molecular organization of cells. Extracellular matrix. DNA, chromosomes,RNA, protein synthesis. Cell cycle, mitosis. Meiosis. Signal transduction. Gene expression. Elements of genetics. Molecular genetics. Plant cells: cell wall, chloroplast and photosynthesis.
"Fondamenti di biologia" Solomon et al. Sounders College Publishing
"Biology" Campbell, Pearson
"The world of the cell" Becker et al., Pearson
Aim of the course, organized in lectures, is to provide to the student the basic knowledge necessary for the comprehension of biological issues during the degree. The course will focus on fundamental biology topics such as cell structure and function as well as genetic. The vegetal biology lectures will provide the basic knowledge essential for the comprehension of successive courses such as Botanica Farmaceutica and Farmacognosia.
Lectures (72 hours, 9 CFU)
Material provided by the professor (ppt slides of the lectures).
Contact hours: every monday (11.00 am-1 pm) by e-mail appointment.
Department of Experimental, Clinical and Biomedical Sciences M Serio
Viale Morgagni 50-50134 Firenze
Tel. 055 2751232,
Type of Assessment
The final exam consists of an oral test preceded by passing a test of 10 multiple choice questions (at least 8 correct answers). The time provided for the execution of the test is 10 minutes, the answer not given is no longer penalizing for a wrong answer. The multiple choice test is mandatory for access to the oral exam but has no weight as a criterion for the composition of the final grade. The final oral exam is divided into three main questions (one of which is plant biology) which the student must know how to deal with in an appropriate, exhaustive and correct manner. During the course it will be possible to take two written ongoing tests with 45 multiple choice questions, one in November on the first part of the program and one in January on the second part. The time provided for the execution of the tests is 40 minutes, the answer not given is no longer penalizing for a wrong answer. Ongoing tests are not mandatory, but if passed, they are taken into consideration in the final evaluation. If both tests are passed, access to the oral exam does not require passing the test of 10 multiple choice questions and the oral exam will be divided into a single question among the program topics. If one of the two tests is not passed, at the final oral exam the student will be mainly examined on the part of the program of the on-going test that has not been passed. In this last case, the oral exam consists of two questions, after passing the test of 10 multiple choice questions.
Cellular Theory. Chemistry of the cell. Methods to observe cells and molecules. Macromolecules of the cell: lipids, carbohydrates, proteins and nucleic acids. Organization of the cell. Prokaryotic cell. Prokaryotic wall. Eukaryotic cell. Cellular organelles: structure and function. Endoplasmic Reticulum, Golgi Apparatus, lysosomes and peroxisomes. Cell Membranes: structure and function. Endocytosis and exocytosis. Active and passive transport. Cytoskeleton: microtubules, microfilaments and intermediate filaments. Extracellular matrix and cell junctions. Nucleus and chromosomes. Bioenergetic: energy flux in the cells. Enzymes and catalysis. Regulation of enzymatic activity. ATP. Metabolism. Autotrophs and Eterotrophs. Glycolysis, fermentation and respiration. Mitochondrion. The chemical nature of genetic material. DNA: structure and function. Mutations and repair mechanisms. DNA organization in genomes. DNA replication. Gene expression. RNA transcription. Maturation of eukaryotic RNAs. Eukaryotic transcription factors. Genetic code. Translation. Post-translational modification of proteins. Regulation of gene expression in Prokaryotes. Regulation of gene expression in Eukaryotes: genomic, transcriptional and post-transcriptional control. Bacteria reproduction. Cell cycle. Mitosis. Cell cycle regulation. Tumor cells. Asexual and sexual reproduction. Meiosis. Principles of heredity: mendelian and post-mendelian genetic. Mechanism of signal transduction. Electric and synaptic signals in neural cells. Messengers and receptors. Viruses, virioids and prions. Molecular genetic of viruses and bacteria. The plant kingdom. Plant cell and its characteristics. Vacuole. Cell wall. Plastids. Chloroplasts. Leucoplasts and starch. Photosynthesis. C4 and CAM plants. Vegetal hormones and other chemicals implicated in Plant growth and development.