Structure and metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids. Enzymes. Energy metabolism. The endogenous biosynthesis. Nitrogen metabolism. The functionality of major organs and tissues. Integration of metabolism. Nutritional aspects: nutrition-fasting cycle, macronutrients, micronutrients, vitamins, essential amino acids. Diabetes mellitus, obesity, malnutrition, metabolic syndrome. Conservation and gene expression information.
-Jeremy M Berg, John L Tymoczko, Lubert Stryer
-David L Nelson, Michael M Cox
Introduzione alla biochimica di Lehninger
Zanichelli Ed., Bologna
- P. C. Champe, R. A. Harvey, D.R. Ferrier.
Le basi della biochimica.
Zanichelli Ed., Bologna, 2006.
Knowledge of molecules forming tissues of animals and plants.
Knowledge of reactions that lead to the synthesis and transformation of these molecules.
Knowledge of the relationship between nutrition and health.
Competence acquired (at the end of the course):
Competence to define the status of molecules and macromolecules and the possible interactions with regard to their functional properties.
Being able to define the relationship between the molecules present in a food and individual health.
Prerequisites approved by CDL
Seminars on topics regarding nutrition. Exercises.
Type of Assessment
Oral examination verifying the ability to design structures and metabolism of compounds.
Organization of biological systems: molecules, energy and information. Biological macromolecules: structure-function relationships, their physiological significance.
Protein composition and primary structure. Higher order structures, motifs, domains. Quaternary structure, functional meanings. Post-translational modifications. Protein folding.
Protein denaturation. Haemoglobin and collagen.
Enzymes: general aspects of enzyme catalysis and regulation of enzyme activity. Inhibition of the enzyme activity. Coenzymes.
Bioenergetics. Energy interconversion, the role of high-energy compounds, coupled reactions. Transport mechanisms. Messengers and receptors.
Electron transport chain. Oxidative phosphorylation.
Polysaccharides: reserve and structural polysaccharides. Glycoproteins.
Glycolysis and fermentation. Gluconeogenesis. Hexose monophosphate pathway. Glycogen synthesis and degradation.
Metabolism of fructose, lactose and galactose.
Biochemical aspects of assumption, digestion and absorption of food. Metabolism of amino acids.
Elimination of nitrogen compounds.
Citric acid cycle.
Dietary lipids: classes, functions, digestion, absorption, secretion and utilization.
Fatty acids and triacylglycerol metabolism. Phospholipid metabolism. Cholesterol and steroids. Lipoproteins.
Metabolic effects of insulin and glucagon.
Metabolism in well-fade state and starvation.
Principles of human nutrition. Energy and nutrient requirements in humans. Macro and micronutrients. Minerals. Dietary recommendations. Malnutrition.
Metabolic diseases: diabetes mellitus, ketosis, food related genetic diseases.
Integration and regulation of the main metabolic pathways.
Nucleic acids: structure and function of DNA and RNA. Genetic code. Synthesis of proteins. Molecular techniques of nucleic acids and their significance in the food sector.