Definition of soil, characteristics and properties of soil colloidal fraction, soil anion and cation exchange capacity, pH and soil buffer capacity. Natural and anthropic soils.
Introduction to the biochemistry
Glucides, lipids, proteins
Enzymes and bio-energetic
Synthesis of ATP
Plant soil nutrient up take strategy
Certini and Ugolini. Basi di Pedologia..Edagricole Ed
Schaetzl and Anderson. Soils Genesis and Geomorphology. Adobe eBook Reader
Calamai and Radaelli. Chimica del Suolo. Piccin Ed.
Strawn, Bohn, O'Connor. Soil Chemistry, 4th Edition. Wiley-Blackwell Eds.
Bosetto, Lozzi. Elementi di biochimica agraria. Aracne Ed. Pinton, Cocucci, Nannipieri, Trevisan. Fondamenti di Biochimica Agraria. Patron Ed.
Lea and Leegood. Plant biochemistry and molecular biology. Wiley Ed.
Competence acquired (at the end of the course): basic known of organic chemistry and plant biochemistry to allow the student to understand the most important biological processes that characterized plant life.
Students are expected to be familiar with the principles and terminology of inorganic and organic chemistry, and with the morphology, anatomy and physiology of plants
Total hours of the course: 144
Hours reserved to private study and other indivual formative activities: 96
Contact hours forLectures: 36
Frequency of lectures, practice and lab., although not compulsory, is recommended
Video projector, PC, overhead projector, labs
Type of Assessment
Exam modality: oral examination on the subjects of lectures and laboratory
Definition of soil. Soil physical characteristics: f soil texture, structure, aggregates, porosity.
Soil chemical characteristics: soil colloidal mineral (clay, Fe-Al oxides-hydroxides) and organic (soil organic matter) fraction. Develop and relevance of soil pH independent and surface dependent charge. Soil cation and anion exchange capacity. Soil pH relevance and determination as real pH (pH-H20) and potential pH (pH-KCl). Soil pH buffer capacity.
Soil as a biological system: relevance of the biotic component, definition of hot spots and bulk soil. Discrimination between the different hot spot typology. Definition of soil fertility and soil functionality concepts. Definition and relevance of soil ecosystem services. Definition of stressed soils and discrimination between extreme and polluted soils. Description of the herbivorous farm and wild animals influence on the soil functionality
Introduction to the main organic molecules with biochemical relevance: Carbohydrates, lipids, fatty acids and proteins
The metabolism: anabolism and catabolism, Bio-energetic and enzymatic activity.
Catabolism: glucides, fatty acids and proteins degradation; Citric Acids Cycle.
Anabolism: mithocondrial ATP synthesis, photosynthesis light dependent phase (ATP synthesis and reductive power production); photosynthesis light independent phase (C3 plants); lipids and proteins biosynthesis.
Secondary metabolism: major classes of secondary products and their functions in plant.
Plant adaptation to abiotic stress: cilmate stress (C3 phorespiration, C4, CAM, Chlororespiration); water and salinity stress (pectin and trehalose), nutrient deficit stress (Nitrogen) N2 fixing and flesh eating plants .
The rhizosphere: root exudates and their relevance in plant nutrient uptake; plant nutrient uptake strategy; nitrogen (NH4+; NO3-); iron and phosphate uptake .
Relationship between soil characteristics and plants nutritional quality and its relevance for herbivorous animals
Laboratory safety rules: how to approach activities in laboratory
Introduction to the main molecular techniques based on DNA/RNA, fatty acid and protein molecules analysis
Determination of soil texture, pH, cation exchange capacity.
Extraction and purification methods of organic molecules from soil (DNA).