Atoms, ions and molecules.
Electronic structure of atoms and chemical periodicity.
Chemical bonding and molecular structure.
Intermolecular forces and states of matter.
Solid state. Classification of solids by type of attraction of units.
Chemical equations and reaction stoichiometry.
Electrochemistry. Voltaic cells and cell potential. Some commercial voltaic cells. Corrosion. Electrolytic cells. Stoichiometry of electrolysis.
Electrons in solids.
The course aims to provide students with the basic knowledge of chemistry essential for understanding the relationships between microscopic structure and macroscopic properties of materials, thus contributing to form a base of basic scientific knowledge to which to add the specific characteristics of the course of study. In particular topics are selected in such a way as to enable students to face and understand two basic topics for their preparation: the solid state, with particular focus on the chemical properties of materials used in electronics, and electrochemistry. In the latter context the problem of corrosion of metals and the strategies for their protection will be introduced.
Students will acquire:
Knowledge and understanding of the relevant laws of chemistry and of the matter behavior from a chemical point of view, bridging the concepts and theories of chemistry with the chemical-physical properties of the materials.
Student will be able to:
Applying knowledge and understanding related to the chemical field to solve mono-disciplinary problems of chemistry as a basis for engineering problems .
The course includes lectures (approximately 80% of the total teaching hours) and exercises designed to prepare students to take the final exam.
Testing texts and teaching material related to particular topics will be provided by the teacher (available on the Moodle online platform).
Type of Assessment
The student evaluation includes a written test consisting of 4 open-ended theoretical questions and 4 exercises. In open-ended questions the student must demonstrate, in addition to a good knowledge of the topics covered, to have sufficient exposure skills and to possess a specialized lexicon at least sufficient. In the exercises, the student will have to demonstrate a good ability to apply the acquired knowledge to solve problems in the chemical field. At the student's choice, if she/he has reached an evaluation of at least 18/30 in the written test, she/he can then take an oral test in which her/ his ability to organize her/his knowledge in the chemical field will be evaluated. This capacity must be at least sufficient.
Atomic structure of matter. Atoms, ions and molecules: the atomic model of matter; the subatomic particles; atomic weight, molecular weight, isotopes, mole.
Electronic structure of the atom. The Heisenberg uncertainty principle; electromagnetic radiation; light-matter interaction: absorption and emission spectra; the wave-particle duality and De Broglie's relationship; the Schrodinger equation; quantum numbers; atomic orbitals (s, p, d, f). The wave function in polar coordinates and its meaning. Polyelectronic atoms; the quantum number of spin; the screen effect; energy flow of the orbitals as a function of Z; rules for filling the orbitals (minimum energy, Pauli, Hund).
Periodic system. Periodic table of the elements; periodic quantities (ionization energy, electronic affinity, atomic radius, electronegativity).
Chemical bonds. Introduction to chemical bonding. The covalent bond; hybridization and geometry of molecules; VSEPR theory, expansion of the octet; resonance; formal charge; pure and polar covalent bonds; dipole moment; polar and apolar molecules; the ionic bond. General characteristics of metals and metallic bonding.
Intermolecular forces and states of aggregation of matter. The hydrogen bond. Gaseous state and ideal gas law equation. The solid state: amorphous solids and crystalline solids. Crystalline lattices and elementary cells.
Types of solids: metallic, ionic, covalent and molecular. Main properties of the different types of solids. Allotropy, polymorphism and isomorphism. Crystal defects (outline).Chemical reactions. Reactions in solution (molarity and pH). Oxidation-reduction reactions; oxidation number, balancing redox reactions.
Electrochemistry. Voltaic cells; the Nernst equation; spontaneity and displacement of redox reactions; oxidation-reduction reactions of water; electrolysis of molten salts and in aqueous solution; Faraday laws. Commercial Voltaic cells. The phenomenon of corrosion. Strategies for corrosion protection.Introduction to Molecular Orbitals and Band theories. Valence bond vs band theory models in metals and semiconductors.
Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors. Conductive polymers (outline).