- Optics; Eugene Hecht.
- Introduction to Optical Microscopy; Jerome Mertz.
- PDF of the slides presented during the lectures.
Knowledge in optical microscopy, non-linear microscopy and super-resolution techniques.
Basic knowledge on geometrical optics and electromagnetic wave.
- Experiences in research laboratory.
Type of Assessment
- Report on experiments conducted in the research laboratory.
- Presentation of a scientific article related to topics presented during the course.
1. Electromagnetic Waves - Equation of electromagnetic waves - planar and spherical waves - waves in dielectrics: dependence of the refractive index on the frequency - electromagnetic wave spectrum - Energy conservation and Poynting vector - Momentum of an electromagnetic wave.
2. Radiation-matter interaction- Reflection and refraction - Dispersion of light - Group velocity- Huygens-Fresnel principle - Interference - Diffraction.
3. Geometrical Optics - Geometrical optics approximation - Reflection - Refraction - Lens - Properties of several optical devices - The human eye.
4. Image formation - 2f system, 4f system, Magnification, Resolution and Point Spread Function - Numerical Aperture of a lens.
5. Molecular Spectra and light-molecule interaction - Electronic structure of a molecule - Absorption - Scattering - Fluorescence - Intersystem crossing and Photo-bleaching.
6. Fluorescent probes and labeling techniques - Endogenous and exogenous dyes- Fluorescent proteins and transfection techniques - Brainbow technology- Functional imaging: voltage sensitive dyes and calcium probes.
7. Wide field microscopy - Microscope scheme- Illumination systems - Detection Systems - Bright-field microscopy - Dark-field microscopy - Phase contrast microscopy - Fluorescence Microscopy - Biological application.
8. Laser scanning microscopy - Confocal microscope - Spatial resolution and optical sectioning - Scanning systems - Detectors (photodiodes - APD- photomultipliers) - Biomedical application.
9. TIRFM - FLIM - FRET microscopy - Total internal reflection (TIR) ??and evanescent wave - Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy (TIRFM) - Fluorescence lifetime - Fluorescence Lifetime Microscopy (FLIM) - Molecular interaction and energy transfer - Foster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) - Biological applications.
10. Light sheet microscopy - Basic principle - Spatial resolution and field of view - Clearing of biological tissues - Biological applications.
11. Two-Photon fluorescence microscopy - Non-linear microscopy - Two photons absorption- Spatial resolution - Penetration depth- pulsed laser sources - Biological applications: high resolution imaging in tissues.
12. Second-harmonic generation microscopy - Second-harmonic generation - Coherent sommation - Emission angle - Biological applications: Imaging of ordered structures.
13. Vibrational Microscopy - Rayleigh Scattering Vs. Raman Scattering - Raman spectroscopy - Raman Microscopy - Coherent Antistokes Raman Scattering (CARS) microscopy - Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) microscopy - Biological applications.
14. Super-resolution techniques- Deconvolution microscopy - 4Pi microscopy - Stimulated Emission Depletion (STED) microscopy - Photo-Activable Localization Microscopy (PALM) - Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (STORM) - Biological applications.
15. Biomimetic materials and surfaces for advanced imaging - Functionalization of inorganic nanoparticles - Imaging and 3d printing
17. Substrates and 3d scaffolds for cell differentiation - Photoresponsive materials.
18. Experiences in research laboratory :
1) Imaging and manipulation of the electrical conduction system of the whole heart.
2) Structural and function imaging using light sheet microscopy.
3) Advanced materials and 3D printing for biomedical applications.