Outlines of the history of zoology; the evolution of life and the main theories. The cell of Protista; reproduction and sex phenomena. The origin of pluricellularity and Metazoa. Sexual and asexual reproduction in animals. Embriology. Organisation, physiology, reproduction, development, behaviour, ecology and adaptive radiation of the main phyla of Metazoa: Porifera, Cnidaria, Ctenophora, Plathelminta, Nematoda, Rotiphera, Mollusca, Anellida, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, Tunicata.
Textbooks (to be chosen by the students) available at the Library of Sciences:
Mitchell, Zoologia, Zanichelli;
Pearse, Invertebrati viventi, Zanichelli;
Barnes, Zoologia degli Invertebrati, Piccin;
Storer, Usinger, Stebbins, Nybakken, Zoologia, Zanichelli;
Hickman CP, Roberts LS jr, Keen SL, Eisenhour DJ, Larson A, l'Anson H, Zoologia, McGraw-Hill;
Fusco G., Minelli, A., Biologia della riproduzione, Pearson, 2018.
The textbook will be used as reference; all topics subject of the lectures will be studied by the student, also by using more than one textbook.
Learning Objectives - Last name/s A-L
Knowledge on the main living invertebrate, their adaptation to the environment, comparative morphology and physiology, reproduction and life cycles, ecology and behaviour, animal diversity with relation to environmental features. Acquisition of a critical knowledge on issues linked to the study of animals both in the field and laboratory. Knowledge on animal evolution and the main evolutionary theories in an historical context as well as in the actual scientific discussion. Guiding lines of the course are the understanding of the adaptation of animals in the environment and evolutionary constraints.
Skills and competencies : acquisition of a zoological language; interpretation of the evolutionary trees of the animals; use of dichotomic tables to classify animals; interpretation of graphics applied to zoology.
Capacity of autonomous study of zoological and evolutionary issues; in-depth study of specific issues treated in the course; classification of animals to the level of Order; contextualisation in the environment of the knowledge related to the different animals; development of scientific hypotheses; interpretation of experimental data to verify hypotheses.
Prerequisites - Last name/s A-L
Baseline knowledge of general biology
Teaching Methods - Last name/s A-L
Lectures are face-to-face, with time dedicated to critical discussion on textbook contents, previous knowledge also derived from life experience, considering that the subject of the cours eare living animals, often microscopic. During the lectures pictures and schemes are shown as well as videos on living animals in their environment. Guided observations of Protozoa and Metazoa, using the optical microscope. At the end of the course a visit to the Zoological Museum La Specola is offered to the students.
Seminars on zoological and evolutionary aspects, which are held occasionally at the University, may complement the course.
Further information - Last name/s A-L
Reception of students on Tuesdays at 10-12 at the Department of Biology, via Romana 17, Firenze; before and after the lectures and during the laboratory classes, for questions regarding the course.
The participation in the lecture classes is highly recommended. The participation in the laboratory classes, which will be organised in groups of students in the afternoons according to the on-line schedule, is mandatory; eventual repetition will be agreed with the laboratory tutors.
Type of Assessment - Last name/s A-L
An oral exam will be given on the subjects illustrated throughout the course. It may be preceded by a short written test with questions and multiple answers on baseline subjects. The student will show baseline knowledge for the study of zoology and detailed knowledge of the principal animal groups. Importance will be given to the precision of the answers and zoological lexicon, the critical capacity, general vision of the matter, detailed knowledge of relevant topics, personal interest for zoological topics that may be relevant for biology, as student and professional.
Course program - Last name/s A-L
OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF ZOOLOGY - Aristotle and the Historia Animalium. The scientific revolution. Francesco Redi and the spontaneous generation. Cartesius and the dualistic theory. The development of microscope (Leuwenhoeck) and the observation of cells and "animalcule". The discovery of Graaf follicular and ovistic theory. Cell theory by Schleiden and Schwann. The hierarchical classification of organisms (Linneus). The diversity of life. The evolution of life and the main theories. Evolution according to Lamarck. Charles Darwin and The Origin of Species. The evolution through natural selection. Neo-darwinism or Synthesis. Fitness and inclusive fitness. The natural classification of organisms: the five Kingdoms; the origin of Eucariotes through symbiosis (Margulis).
REPRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT – Weismann theory of soma and germen. Mitosis e Meiosis. Somatogonic reproduction, Sexual reproduction and gametogenesis. Spermatogenesis and ovogenesis in mammals. Ovocite accretion. Primary and secondary egg membranes. Fertilisation. Parthenogenesis: diploid regulation and adaptation. Egg types and segmentation modalities. Blastulae. Gastrulation modalities and gastrulae. Blastopore; mesoderm formation. Protostomata and Deuterostomata animals. Dorsal cord and neurulation in vertebrates. Embryos and larvae.
PROTISTA - The cell of Protista, organisation and adaptation to the environment, movement, feeding and reproduction. Life cycles and sex phenomena: mitosis, meiosis and fertilization; cycles of Aplonta, Diplonta and Aplodiplobionta. The phyla of Protozoa: Sarcomastigophora, Apicomplexa, Ciliophora. Ciliate macronucleous; mating types; conjugation. Cicles of parasites: Entamoeba, Trypanosoma, Plasmodium.
ANIMALIA - The origin of pluricellularity . Natural classification and omology criteria. Mesozoa. Poriphera. Metazoan. Cnidaria: Hydrozoa, Cubozoa, Sciphozoa, Anthozoa. Ctenophora. Bilateria. Plathelminta: Turbellaria, Monogenea, Trematoda and Cestoda. Parasitism evolution. Cycles of Fasciola hepatica, Chlonorchis sinensis, Schistosoma mansoni, Diphyllobotrium latum, Taenia saginata e T. solium, Echinococcus granulosus. Nemertea. Pseudocoelomata: Rotiphera, Nematoda. Life cycles of human parasites: Strongyloides stercoralis, Ankilostoma duodenale, Necator americanus, Ascaris lumbricoides, Enterobius vermicularis, Trichinella spiralis, Dracunculus medinensis, Wuchereria bancrofti, Loa loa, Onchocerca volvulus. Mollusca: the hypothetic primitive mollusc; adaptive radiation of molluscs. Aplacophora; Polyplacophora; Monoplacophora; Gastropoda: Archaeogastropoda, Neogastropoda, Opistobranchia, Pulmonata; Scaphopoda; Lamellibranchia; Cephalopoda: Nautiloidea, Sepiodea, Teutoidea, Octopoda. Anellida: Polychaeta, Oligochaeta, Hirudinea. Lophophorata: Foronidea, brachiopoda, Briozoa. Arthropoda: Chelicerata: Xifosura, Pycnogonida, Aracnida. Crustacea, Miriapoda, Insecta. Echinodermata: Crinoidea, Asteroidea, Echinoidea, Oloturioidea, Ofiuroidea. Cordata: Tunicata.