Knowledge of the structure, function and yhe structure-function relationship of biomolecules, as well as ofthe catabolic and anabolic pathways that characterize animal cell metabolism. Knowledge of tissue metabolism and inter-organ relations, including the role of intra- and intercellular messengers. Understanding of the metabolic and adaptive differences between animal and vegetal cells.
Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry - David L. Nelso, Michael M. Cox
The knowledge learned in the course will enable the student to understand the metabolic pathways activated in different physiological and pathological situations and the physiological relationships between organs and tissues in animals and plants. This knowledge will be the basis for the understanding of the pathological phenomena, subject to subsequent courses, as well as to optimize the identification and resolution of biological problems, in order to give a fundamental basis to the future biotechnologists who will devote themselves to scientific research.
It is mandatory that students have previosly passed the examinations of the courses of General and inorganic chemistry and that of Organic chemistry.
The teacher will provide didactic material uploaded on a specific website.
Type of Assessment
The biochemical logic of living matter. Biomolecules and their functional groups.
Proteins and their structure. Structure-function relationships. Fibrous proteins.
Globular proteins: hemoglobin and myoglobin. oxygen transport in the blood.
The enzymes. Factors affecting enzyme activity. Enzyme kinetics and regulation of enzyme activity. The genetic improvement of enzymes. Biotechnology applied to enzymes.
Biological role of water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins.
Introduction to metabolism. High-energy compounds. Principles of bioenergetics. biological oxidation reactions. aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis and its regulation. Cycle of tricarboxylic acids and its regulation.
Respiratory chain, oxidative phosphorylation and their regulation.
Gluconeogenesis. Glycogen synthesis, glycogenolysis and their regulation.
Hexose monophosphate shunt, interconversion of saccharides and their regulation.
Proteoglycans and glycoproteins - structure and function.
Lipolysis, oxidation of fatty acids and their regulation.
Biosynthesis of fatty acids and triglycerides and their regulation. Biosynthesis and function of eicosanoids. Cholesterol metabolism.
Phospholipids and glycolipids: metabolism and function.
Metabolism of glucogenic and ketogenic amino acids.
Deamination of amino acids. The urea cycle.
Metabolism of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides. Uric acid.
Biochemical processes of digestion.
The biosynthesis of glycoprotein hormones, derived from amino acids and steroids. Classification of hormonal receptors. Classification of second messengers. Signal transduction. hormonal regulation of transcription and metabolic pathways.
Integration of metabolism. Metabolism of certain organs and tissues: muscle, heart, liver, adipose tissue, nerve tissue and blood.
Photosynthesis and the Calvin cycle. Plants C3 and C4.