Basic knowledge of crystallography, mineralogical crystallography in particular.
Principal methods of X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy.
Crystal structure determination and refinement. Crystal structures as traps to incorporate toxic/radioactive ions/ for waste management.
F.D. Bloss (1971) Crystallography and Crystal Chemistry, New York.
C.L. Garavelli (1964) Elementi di Cristallografia Strutturale. Adriatica Editrice, Bari.
M. Buerger (1963) Elementary Crystallography. John Wiley and Sons.
C. Giacovazzo et al. (1992) Fundamentals of Crystallography. Oxford University Press (capitolo di Ferraris).
D.T. Griffen (1999) Silicate crystal chemistry. Oxford University Press.
C. Hammond (1999) Introduzione alla cristallografia. Zanichelli
A. Putnis (1992) Introduction to Mineral Sciences. Cambridge University Press.
Knowledge of basic crystallography, including acquisition of competence in analysis and description of crystal structures by the use of crystallographic software for structure refinements, calculations of bond distances and bond angles, crystal structure imaging.
Competence in reading of basic crystallographic literature.
Lectures supplemented by tutorials and exercises in order to obtain a continuous monitoring of students' understanding. Laboratory use of state-of-the-art single-crystal X-ray diffractometrs.
Type of Assessment
the student will be required to respond to questions on the main topics developed during the course. The student ability to deal with the main topics of the course, and the mastery in explaining the required topics will be evaluated. The students will be also required to prepare each a power point presentation on one of the topics object of the course.
From morphological to structural symmetry. Planar and space groups. Exercises to recognize symmetry. Reciprocal lattice and Ewald sphere. Principal methods of X-ray diffraction: powder and single-crystal diffractometry. Measure and correction of the reflection intensities from single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Structure factor. Friedel's law. Laue groups. Systematic absences. Exercises to determinate space groups. Crystal-single diffraction lab. Crystallographic software for the determination and refinement of a crystal structure. Graphic representation of crystal structures. From the chemical analysis to the mineral formula: cation distribution on the basis of the obtained structural data. X-ray diffraction effects collected at non-ambient conditions (high pressure and temperature).
From ideal to real structures. Applications of transmission electron microscopy to defects: point defects and superstrucures, dislocations and planar defects.