Physiology of plant membranes. The water and the plant. Pigments. Photosynthesis.
Allocation of photosynthetic products. Specific metabolic pathways of plants. Photosynthetic adaptations. Mineral nutrition. Plant hormones.
TAIZ & ZEIGER
Fisiologia Vegetale Ed. Piccin.
HOPKINS W. G., HÜNER N.P.A.
Fisiologia vegetale. Ed. MecGraw-Hill
ALPI A., PUPILLO P., RIGANO C.
Fisiologia delle Piante. Ed. EdiSES
PUPILLO P., CERVONE F., CRESTI M., RASCIO N.
Biologia vegetale. Ed Zanichelli
Knowledge acquired: learning in biochemical, biophysical and molecular processes key to the functional mechanisms of plants
Learning a basic understanding of key biological mechanisms involved in vital functions and in the adaptive capacity of plants. Know the typical physiological functions of plants and the importance of their contribution to maintaining the environmental balance
Skills acquired (at the end of the course):
An overview of the vital functions of plants, knowledge needed for each area of research and application that has as its object the use of plants in agronomy, biotechnology, environmental strategy, etc..
Courses to be used as requirements (required and/or recommended)
Total hours of the course (including the time spent in attending lectures, seminars, private study, examinations, etc...): 150
Hours reserved to private study and other indivual formative activities: 90
Contact hours for: Lectures (hours): 60
Contact hours for: Laboratory (hours): 0
Contact hours for: Laboratory-field/practice (hours): 0
Seminars (hours): 0
Intermediate examinations: 0
Frequency of lectures, practice and lab:
Twice a week for a total of 4 hours
Power Point Presentation, notes, slides.
After appointment, any day of the week that is not engaged by other institutional activities.
Type of Assessment
Final oral examination
Course Contents (detailed programme): Peculiar characteristics of the plant cell and architectural structure of the plant. Wall and cell membranes: structure and functions. Diffusion and transport across the membranes. The Fick law and the Nernst equation: active and passive transport. Solute transport: proton pumps, ion channels and carriers. Water and plants cells: water potential and its components, water translocation through the xylem, the tension-cohesion theory, cavitation and embolism. The water in the soil: water potential of the soil, root uptake of water, water movement in the root, root pressure. The stomata: opening and closing mechanisms, environmental control stomata opening and closing.
Plants and mineral nutrition: macro and micro-nutrients inorganic radical absorption of mineral salts, hydroponics, deficiency symptoms and toxicity, growth curves and the law of the minimum. Plants and nitrogen: nitrogen cycle, reducing assimilation of nitrate and ammonia assimilation, biological fixation of nitrogen. Assimilation and organic sulfur.
Photosynthesis: photosynthetic apparatus, plastids and organization of photosynthetic membranes, Photosystem. The photosynthetic pigments: chlorophylls and carotenoids. Mechanisms of absorption of light, excited states and types of transitions of electrons. Photolysis of water. Plastoquinones cyclic processes. Non-cyclic, cyclic and pseudociclic photosphorilation.
Photo-damage and photo-protection. Photosynthetic carbon metabolism: Rubisco and Calvin cycle, modulation by the light of the Calvin cycle enzymes, photorespiration, photosynthetic adaptations, plants C4 and CAM plants. Synthesis of sucrose and starch synthesis. Self-regulation of photosynthesis.
Translocation of photosynthesis products : loading and unloading of the phloem, the concept of source and sink.
Respiratory metabolism: mitochondria, respiration and fermentation, respiratory quotient. Respiration resistant to cyanide. ?-oxidation and glyoxylate cycle.
The plant hormones: the role of hormones in regulating development. Auxins: cell growth elongation, cell wall extendibility and regulation of water potential. Cytokinin: role in morphogenesis and in senescence. Gibberellin: regulation of stem elongation, of cell vascular cambium growth and of the hydrolysis of reserve substances in the seeds germinating. Abscisic acid: regulation of stomata movements, control over the development of seeds. Ethylene responses to various stress effects on ripening of fruits, senescence.
The Phytochrome: the effects at the cellular and molecular level.