Health Promotion. Definitions of epidemiology, hygiene and public health. Demographic elements. Sources of data. Elements of epidemiological methodology. Natural history of diseases and prophylactic interventions: primary, secondary and tertiary prevention. Measures of association and risk estimation. Descriptive, analytical and experimental studies. Epidemiology of infectious diseases. Outbreak models.
The risk and protective factors related to diseases of wider diffusion.
The slides of lessons will be provided. Students will be able to deepen the topics by consulting hygiene texts: Comodo, Maciocco. Igiene e Sanita' Pubblica – Manuale per le professioni sanitarie. Carocci Faber, Roma. Barbuti, Bellelli, Fara, Giammanco. Igiene e Medicina Preventiva. Vol.1: Igiene, Metodologia Epidemiologica ed Epidemiologia Clinica. Monduzzi Editore, Bologna. Manzoli, Villari, Boccia. Epidemiologia e Management in Sanità. Elementi di metodologia. Edi-Ermes, Milano Lopalco, Tozzi. Epidemiologia facile. Il pensiero scientifico editore, Roma. Signorelli. Elementi di metodologia epidemiologica. Società Editrice Universo, Roma Ricciardi. Igiene, Medicina preventiva, Sanità Pubblica. IDELSON-GNOCCHI, Napoli Jekel, Elmore, Katz. Epidemiologia, Biostatistica e Medicina preventiva. EDISES, Napoli Lanciotti. Igiene per le professioni sanitarie. McGraw-Hill, Milano
The student will mature skills and knowledge about the risk factors and protective factors related to diseases of wider diffusion and impact with particular attention to the prevention of infectious and chronic diseases.
Moreover, the student will be able to understand the main health indicators, to develop knowledge and skills related to the main epidemiological study designs. The student will be able to discuss the concept of etiology and analyze the natural history of the diseases, acute and chronic, communicable or not.
Prerequisites approved by degree course
Students must attend the written tests with student university record card or a valid identity document. In order to participate to the written tests a calculator is required and the use the mobile phone is not allowed.
Type of Assessment
One written test on the whole program. True/False questions and exercises with multiple choice answers.
Definitions of epidemiology, hygiene and public health. The concept of health and its evolution over time. Health promotion. Concepts of causative agent and risk factor. Natural history of disease and prophylactic interventions: primary, secondary and tertiary prevention. Ratios, proportions and rates in epidemiology. Morbidity as incidence and prevalence rates. Mortality: mortality by cause, by age, by gender. Case fatality rate. Proportional mortality ratio. Screening tests: sensitivity, specificity, predictive value of positive and negative results. Influence of cut-off values on sensitivity and specificity. Concepts of accuracy and precision. Sources of data in epidemiology. Collection, processing and graphical representation of data. Studies of descriptive epidemiology. Personal factors influencing disease distribution. Secular trends, cyclical and short-term fluctuations in the incidence of diseases. Analysis of the spatial distribution of diseases. The endemic and epidemic trends of diseases. Point source of outbreaks and progressive or propagated epidemics. Herd immunity. Measures of association and risk estimation: relative risk, odds ratio and their applications. Population attributable risk (PAR). Studies of analytical epidemiology. Design, conduct and analysis of results of epidemiological studies: transversal, retrospective (case-control) and prospective (cohort) studies. Design, conduct and analysis of results of experimental studies (clinical trials). Blinded studies. Types of sampling: randomized, "cluster", stratified, systematic sampling. Causal, indirect and spurious association. General epidemiology of infectious diseases. Infectious agents, reservoirs and sources of infection. Definition of colonization, infection and infectious disease. Variations in the severity of infectious diseases. General principles of prophylaxis for infectious diseases: notification, diagnosis, isolation, disinfection. Universal Precautions for bloodborn infections. General information on vaccines and standard and specific immunoglobulins. The schedule of compulsory and recommended vaccinations. Immunology of vaccinations. Contraindications to vaccinations. Eradication of infectious diseases. Vaccines in Pharmacy: procurement, storage, dispensation. False myths about vaccination. Access to Vaccinations for the population.
Disinfection and sterilization. Microclimate elements. Carcinogenicity factors and tumor prevention measures. Prevention of chronic degenerative diseases.
Epidemiology and prevention of the following infectious diseases: measles, rubella, mumps, varicella and Herpes zoster, hepatitis A, B and C, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and poliomyelitis, Rotavirus, TBC, malaria, TORCH complex, typhoid fever, AIDS, influenza, HPV, infection due to meningococcus and pneumococcus, Toxoplasmosis, Leptospirosis, Pediculosis, Scabies. Prevention of infections related to hospital assistance. Foodborne diseases: epidemiology and prevention, HACCP. Epidemiology and prevention of: salmonellosis, botulism, listeriosis, Staphylococcus aureus poisoning, Clostridium perfringens and Bacillus cereus toxinfections. Food preservation. Chemical contamination, food safety.