The structure of the prokaryotic cell.The bacterial endospore . The nutrition of microorganisms. The nutritional classification of microorganisms. The bioenergetic processes. Aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration . The fermentations. The photosynthesis . Krebs cycle. Biosynthetic pathways . Microbial growth. Temperature , oxygen , pH , water activity . Fungi and yeasts. Laboratory.
M. T. Madigan, J. M. Martinko, D. A. Stahl, D. P. Clark. Brock. Biologia dei Microrganismi. Microbiologia generale. Volume 1. Volume 2. Casa Editrice Pearson, 2012.
Bruno Biavati, Claudia Sorlini. Microbiologia generale e agraria. Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, 2007.
Bruno Biavati, Claudia Sorlini. Microbiologia agroambientale. Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, 2008.
Knolewdge acquired: the course aims to provide knowledge related to the study of prokaryotes and eukaryotes and the utilization of their activities.
Competence acquired (at the end of the course): the course proposes to give the knowledge of methods for the microscopic observation, isolating, identifying, cultivation and for the study of the microbial growth curve.
Skills acquired (at the end of the course): the course proposes to give the skills to isolate, to observe under a microscope, to identify and to cultivate the main prokaryotes and eukaryotes microorganisms.
Courses to be used as requirements (required and/or recommended)
Courses recommended: General and inorganic chemistry with lab; Organic chemistry. Frequency of lectures, practice and lab: not compulsory.
video projector, PC, overhead projector, laboratory.
Total hours of the course (including the time spent in attending lectures, seminars, private study, examinations, etc...): 150
Hours reserved to private study and other indivual formative activities:
Contact hours for: Lectures (hours): 30
Contact hours for: Laboratory (hours): 18
Contact hours for: Laboratory-field/practice (hours): 0
Seminars (hours): 0
Intermediate examinations: 0
Every day by appointment. Telephone numbers: 055 2755922; 3389049712 firstname.lastname@example.org
Dipartimento di Scienze delle Produzioni Agroalimentari e dell'Ambiente (DiSPAA), Sezione di Microbiologia, Piazzale delle Cascine 24, 50144 Firenze
Type of Assessment
Exam modality: oral examination on the subjects of lectures and laboratory.
Course Contents (detailed programme):
Introduction of the course. A brief history of microbiology. The particular characteristics of the microbial world and techniques for study. The structure of the prokaryotic cell : the wall of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria , the cytoplasmic membrane and transport systems , the cytoplasmic inclusions, flagella and pili . The bacterial endospore . The nutrition of microorganisms : the nutrients and growth factors. The nutritional classification of microorganisms. The bioenergetic processes : electron transport phosphorylation ( ETP ) and the substrate-level phosphorylation (SLP) . Aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration . The fermentations and their metabolic significance . The microbial photosynthesis . The four-way breakdown of sugars : glycolysis ; pentosofosfati ; Entner Doudoroff ; fosfochetolasica . Krebs cycle. Biosynthetic pathways . Microbial growth : growth curve in batch and its parameters (growth rate , growth yield , generation time , etc . ) . Growth curve diauxica. Continuous culture: chemostat and turbidostato ; parameters of continuous culture ( dilution rate , flow , etc. . ) . The parameters that affect microbial growth: temperature, oxygen, pH, water activity. The classification of microorganisms based on the relationship between growth and the presence of oxygen . The classification of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms : criteria for the classification and study techniques . Fungi and yeasts: their main characteristics and their significance. The soil as an environment of microorganisms. Cycles of the fundamental elements: the carbon cycle, the nitrogen cycle, the sulfur cycle. Bacteriophages . Genetics of microorganisms and microbial genomics.
An introduction to microscopy and specimen preparation. Microscopic observation of bacteria, molds, yeasts, algae. Preparation of media for the isolation and the cultivation of microrganisms. Methods for the sterilisation: dry heat, autoclave, pasteurisation, radiations, chemical factors. Isolating pure cultures. Bacterial identification: the Gram stain, the KOH test, catalase activitie, Biolog's method. The growth curve obtained by the plate count technique, the spectrophotometric measurements and the glass slide Thoma.