Hydrothermal fluids and hydrothermal alterations. Fluid inclusions (FI) and melt inclusions. Analytical methods for FI studies (theory and practice). Applications of FI and hydrothermal alterations to research on hydrothermal ore deposits and geothermal systems. Applications of melt inclusions to petrology and volcanology. Study of phase equilibria of interest in ore mineralogy. Indicators and buffers. "Ore petrology". Reflected light optical microscopy (theory and practic
Sheperd T., Rankin A.H. and Alderton D.H.M. (1985). A practical guide to fluid inclusion studies, Blackie, 239 pp. Samson, A. Anderson, D. Marshall (eds.) (2003). Fluid inclusions, Analysis and interpretation. Mineral. Assoc. Canada, vol. 32 James R. Craig and David J. Vaughan (1981). Ore microscopy and ore petrology, John Wiley & Sons, 406 pp. Robb L. (2005). Introduction to ore-forming processes. Blackwell Publishing, 372 pp.
Knowledge: Geothermobarometry, physico-chemical characteristics of fluid inclusions. Petrology of sulphides, applications to the study exploration of ore deposits.
Skills acquired: Basic knowledge of the thermodynamics of fluid systems of geological interest. Interpretation of phase relation between economic minerals.
Skills acquired at the end of the course: Microthermometric analyses of fluid inclusions, and data interpretation. Interpretation of petrological and textural data of ore minerals obtained by reflected light microscopy
CFU:6 Total hours of the course (including the time spent in attending lectures, seminars, private study, examinations, etc...): 150
Teaching tools Transmitted light optical microscope equipped with a microthemometric stage. Reflected light microscope
Attendance to lessons and laboratory activity are highly recommended
Type of Assessment
Exam modality: practical (phase recognition in reflected light microscopy), oral test, written report about laboratory activity (fluid inclusions study)
Characteristics of hydrothermal fluids and hydrothermal alterations in the major ore deposits and geothermal fields. Origin of hydothermal fluids and dissolved substances, movement of the fluids in the crust, transport and deposition of metals in fluids.
Fluid inclusions: classification, applications and main analytical methods. PVT properties of H2O-system, outline of PVTX features of most relevant fluid systems for fluid inclusion studies (H2O + NaCl, H2O + CO2, H2O + NaCl + CO2 etc.). Microthermometric analyses. Interpretation and elaboration of microthermometric data: thermo-barometric information and salinity calculation. Notes on other analytical methodologies. Characteristics of fluid inclusions and hydrothermal alterations in magmatic-hydrothermal systems (porphyry-copper, skarn), in epithermal systems and in geothermal fields. Applications to ore studies and mineral exploration and geothermal research. Main features and analytical methods for melt inclusions. Application of melt inclusions to volcanology and petrology.
Study of phase equilibria of interest in mineralogy. Gibbs' phase rule in closed systems and open (Korzhinsky-Thompson). Sulfide reactions. Indicators and buffers. Work on the kinetics of reaction. "Ore petrology" systems Fe-S, Fe-Zn-S, Cu-Fe-Zn-S, Fe-As-S. Applications of the reflected light optical microscopy to the study of phase equilibria of ore mineral assemblages.