Basic concepts of Plant Biology. Importance of plants. Autotrophism and other fundamental characters of green plants. Plant cytology, Histology, Anatomy and Organography. Basic Plant Physiology. Diversity Evolution and Classification of Plants. Nomenclature. Cyanobacteria, Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Spermatophytes (Gymnosperms and Angiosperms): Structures, reproduction, essential systematics.
G. Pasqua, G. Abbate, C. Forni, "Botanica generale e diversità vegetale" 2019 Ed. Piccin (IV edizione).
Knowledge of the external and internal organization and structure of the seed plant (from cell to organ level), and of the main functioning mechanisms. General knowledge of the diversity of plants and capacity to identify the main groups and families of spermatophytes
General basis of biology and organic chemistry.
Classroom lectures. Practical training of identification and description of histological and anatomical structures. Practical training of observation and identification of samples of the main plant groups and angiosperm families. Field excursion (Botanical Garden and/or Cascine park). A written self-evaluation test related to the part of general Plant Biology (first half of the course) takes place at the mid of the course around (early november)
The course includes two parts of similar "weight": general plant biology (3CFU) and plant systematics (3 CFU).
Type of Assessment
Oral exam, which includes the observation and description of a slide/photograph of plant anatomy or histology, and of a dry or fresh specimen of a seed plant for its identification.
Evaluation criteria are based on: 1) the use of a correct terminology; 2) the level of knowledge of the issues under discussion and 3) the ability to recognize and describe correctly an histological or anatomical specimen of plant organ or tissue, and to place in the coorect systematic group a fresh or dry specimen of vascular plant.
General Plant Biology. Importance of plants for humans. Autotrophism and other fundamental characters of plants. Domains and kingdoms of living organisms. Main phylogenetic groups of plants. Cytology. The cell theory. The plant cell: general structure. Biological membranes. Water transport and solutes. Osmosis. The cell wall. Mitochondria, Golgi Apparatus, Ribosomes, RE. The Vacuole. Secondary metabolites. Plastid and chloroplast. Pigments. The Nucleus and cell cycle. Mitosis and Meiosis. The tissue concept. The plant tissues: primary and secondary meristems. Adult tissues: epidermal, parenchymatous, mechanical, vascular, secretory. Organography and Anatomy. The root: functions; external and internal structure (apex, primary and seconday zones; lateral root formation). Water uptake from soil and transport to the central cylinder. Specializations and adaptations. The stem: external structure and functions; apex, primary and secondary structure. Differences between dicots and monocots. The leaf: morphological variability. Functions. Internal structure. Stomata and gas exchanges. Fundamentals of photosynthesis. Plant systematics. Fundamentals of Plant diversity and Evolution. Species concept. Sexual reproduction. The life cycle of plants. Plant classification and nomenclature. The main evolutionary steps of plants. Procariotes: cyanobacteria. The first Eucariotes: Algae (cenni). The first terrestrial plants (emersion from water): Bryophytes. The first vascular plants (cryptogamic tracheophytes): Lycophytes, Equisetophytes, Polypodiophytes (Pteridophytes). The evolution of heterospory. The seed plants (Spermatophytes). The ovule and the seed. . Gymnosperms: fundamental characters, life cycle, reproduction, essential systematics. Angiosperms: origin and fundamental characters. Reproduction. The flower. The fruit. Basic systematics. Some important families.